Reaction to vaccination in newborns, when is it normal and when to go to the emergency room
Mercedes borjaNEWS15.11.2021 – 07:47H
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Coronavirus vaccines are not the only ones that can cause adverse reactions in patients. In fact, all vaccines , as with other medications, can cause mild side effects and, in isolated cases, more serious reactions. For this reason, although the benefits far outweigh the risks, we must always be vigilant when we get a vaccine, especially the first few times, to babies.
The first vaccine that newborn babies receive is hepatitis B, which is given before they are even 24 hours old. While still in the hospital, if it causes an adverse or serious reaction, or an allergy, we will have doctors nearby, but, at two months, when the babies receive the first vaccines at home, we must be very attentive to
What are the first vaccinations children receive?
Once home, the baby receives the first vaccinations at two months of age. Some of these vaccines are combined or polyvalent, that is, several different vaccines are inoculated with each drug. Specifically, those that are recommended to apply after two months are:
At what age should you get vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis?
DTPa: diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis
Hib: la bacteria Haemophilus influenzae tipo b
VPI: antipoliomielítica inactivada
VNC : conjugated antineumococcal
RV: Against rotavirus
MenB: Against meningococcus B
These vaccines are of several doses, so, in the coming months, starting at four months, children will begin to receive the next doses. However, there are some guys who should not be vaccinated:
• If you are sick on the day you get the vaccine, it is advisable to postpone it until you are cured.
• If you have ever had a serious reaction after receiving a dose of the vaccine or some of the component it contains, you should not receive another dose of that vaccine, although in the case of the first doses, we cannot know.
• If you have had a high fever in the past seven days.
• You have had seizures or other nervous system problems in the past few days.
Mild and severe reactions after receiving the first vaccines
As stated on the website En familia from the Spanish Association of Pediatrics , “vaccines are very safe drugs, as they are subjected to strict studies before they can be administered to the population and they continue to be monitored even once they are marketed.” Even so, all of them can produce mild reactions. The most common are tenderness, redness or swelling at the injection site, a rash, or a mild fever, and they usually appear within a few hours or the next day.
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Exceptionally – it is estimated that one in a million – “a vaccine can trigger serious reactions in people allergic to that preparation or with other types of special circumstances. That is why it is recommended to monitor and administer it by health professionals and to stay in the vaccination center for 20 minutes after vaccination ”.
In addition, each of them can cause specific side effects. As we can read in Medline and healthychildren.org , a website developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics:
DTaP vaccine. This vaccine may cause mild discomfort in 1 in 10 children. The most common are tiredness , poor appetite, vomiting, swelling at the injection site . Also, in one out of every 14,000 children, it can cause seizures due to high fever.
Serious problems are very rare, but long-term seizures , coma, decreased consciousness, and permanent brain damage have been reported.
Hib, hepatitis B and polio (VPI). These vaccines have only caused mild adverse effects , such as redness, warmth, and swelling at the injection site and fever.
Pneumococcal (VNC). After receiving this vaccine, up to 8 out of 10 children felt drowsy or uncomfortable, so it is a reaction, although mild, very common. One in 20 may also have loss of appetite, fever over 38.8, swelling, pain, or tenderness at the injection site. With a high fever, some children have seizures.
Rotavirus (RV): The most common adverse effects of this vaccine are vomiting, diarrhea, and moderate fever, all of which are mild. Isolated cases of bronchospasm, urticaria and intussusception have been reported in the week following administration of this vaccine. Symptoms are intermittent severe abdominal pain, vomiting, and bloody stools.
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Men B. The most common mild symptoms of this vaccine are pain, redness, or swelling in the area where the vaccine was given, tiredness, headache, muscle or joint pain, fever, or nausea. A case of Kawasaki disease has also been described as a complication of vaccination against meningococcus B, but it has not been shown to be due to this vaccine and, if it is, it is very unlikely to occur.
When to go to the emergency room
Although the probability is very remote, as with all medicines, there is the possibility of a serious allergic reaction, which will need to be treated immediately. Hence, it is recommended, especially when vaccines are administered for the first time, to stay in the health center for about 20 minutes after the injection. Thus, in the event of a severe allergic reaction, you can act quickly. Also to be attentive to any symptoms that are out of the mild and common described above or if they last longer than necessary.
You should go to the emergency room if you have any of these symptoms: severe hives, swelling of the face and throat, difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, dizziness, weakness. Also, in the case of the rotavirus vaccine, watch out for intestinal symptoms. In the event of any other strange symptom, even mild, it is also advisable to consult your doctor.